Rabu, 04 Mei 2011

Jonny Greenwood

Jonathan Richard Guy Greenwood (born 5 November 1971) is an English musician and composer, best known as a member of the English alternative rock band Radiohead. Greenwood is a multi-instrumentalist, but serves mainly as lead guitarist and keyboard player. In addition to guitar and keyboard, he plays viola, xylophone, glockenspiel, ondes martenot, banjo, harmonica and drums. He also does work on the electronic side of Radiohead, working on computer-generated sounds and sampling. He wrote the soundtracks of the films Bodysong, There Will Be Blood, and Norwegian Wood as well as serving as "composer-in-residence" for the BBC Concert Orchestra. He is the younger brother of fellow Radiohead member, Colin Greenwood.

Noted for his aggressive playing style, Greenwood is consistently named as one of the greatest guitarists of the modern era. Citing his work with Radiohead, Channel 4 described Greenwood as a "significant creative force within the music industry."



Greenwood had begun studying at Oxford Brookes University when Radiohead predecessor On A Friday signed a recording contract with EMI in 1991. He left university shortly after. While Greenwood is the only member of Radiohead to have been classically trained on any instrument (he took viola lessons as a child), he is also the only band member without a university degree.

Greenwood's influence on Radiohead's recording and writing can be heard in many songs, as he usually takes the traditional lead-guitarist role. For a while, Greenwood wore an arm brace due to a repetitive strain injury attributed to his "aggressive" way of playing the instrument, often billed as "abusive guitar". He has said that "It's like taping up your fingers before a boxing match."

Greenwood is often credited as the second major influence on songwriting in Radiohead, next to Thom Yorke. He wrote the music for the closing tracks of OK Computer ("The Tourist"), Kid A ("Motion Picture Soundtrack"), Amnesiac ("Life in a Glasshouse") and Hail to the Thief ("A Wolf at the Door"). He also wrote the intro, chorus and outro sections of the song "Subterranean Homesick Alien" from the OK Computer album, as well as the "rain down" section of "Paranoid Android". According to Yorke, the track "Just" from The Bends was "a competition by me and Jonny to get as many chords as possible into a song". An example of Greenwood's versatility is his use of the Ondes Martenot, which is featured on songs such as "The National Anthem" and "How to Disappear Completely" from the album Kid A, and "Pyramid Song" from the album Amnesiac. The song "Where I End and You Begin" from Hail to the Thief, which also features the instrument, was dedicated to the memory of Jeanne Loriod, a pioneer of the Ondes. It is also featu
red in the middle eight of "Bodysnatchers" on In Rainbows.

Greenwood and Yorke also collaborated on the song "Arpeggi" which is a piece in a classical style centered around arpeggios for voice, Ondes, and orchestra. It was performed with the London Sinfonietta and Arab Orchestra of Nazareth at the Ether Festival in March 2005, the song would later be adapted for the full band to play in 2006, rearranged for guitar. A studio version (closer to the full band version than the orchestral version) appeared on the album In Rainbows as "Weird Fishes/Arpeggi".

Solo work and current projects

In 2003, Greenwood released his first solo album, Bodysong (2003), the soundtrack for the movie of the same title by filmmaker Simon Pummell. Bodysong also features contributions from his brother Colin on bass.

Jonny Greenwood was hired by the BBC as composer in residence to the BBC Concert Orchestra in May 2004, a job which gave him the opportunity to compose several pieces for symphony orchestra, piano and/or Ondes Martenot: smear, Piano for Children and Popcorn Superhet Receiver. smear premiered in 2004, and on 23 April 2005 Greenwood premiered his new work commissioned by BBC Radio 3, with music performed live by the BBC Concert Orchestra in London. The printed music for smear, Popcorn Superhet Receiver and Doghouse (see below) are available from Faber Music Ltd in London. smear has also been recorded by the London Sinfonietta conducted by Martyn Brabbins and is Greenwood's recorded debut in the genre.

Greenwood won the Radio 3 Listeners' Award at the 2006 BBC British Composer Awards for his piece, "Popcorn Superhet Receiver". The piece was inspired by radio static and the elaborate, dissonant tone clusters of Polish composer Krzysztof Penderecki's Threnody to the Victims of Hiroshima. It can be streamed from a BBC website. Upon winning the award Greenwood received £10,000 from the PRS Foundation towards a commission for a new orchestral work.

A fan of dub reggae, Greenwood released a compilation in collaboration with Trojan Records, entitled Jonny Greenwood Is The Controller in March 2007. This is the latest in Trojan’s Artist Choice Jukebox series, to which DJ Spooky and Don Letts have already contributed. Trojan Records provided Greenwood with its extensive catalog of songs, of which he chose 17. The title is a play on the first track on the collection, entitled "Dread Are The Controller", by Linval Thompson. The album contains tracks by artists such as Derrick Harriott, Gregory Isaacs, The Heptones and many more.

Greenwood composed the score for the 2007 film, There Will Be Blood, from director Paul Thomas Anderson. The soundtrack contains excerpts from "Popcorn Superhet Receiver". His work as the composer for this film was highly acclaimed by reviewers and earned him an award at the Critics' Choice Awards. On January 21, 2008, however, the score was declared ineligible for an Academy Award nomination under a rule that prohibited "scores diluted by the use of tracked themes or other pre-existing music." On 4 February 2008 it was announced that Greenwood had won the trophy for Best Film Score in the Evening Standard British Film Awards for 2007. In its 2009 end-of-decade round-up Rolling Stone magazine named the film the best of the decade and cited Greenwood's score as a major element in its success, "redefining what is possible in film scores".

In 2008, Greenwood wrote the theme music for Adam Buxton's comedy pilot meeBOX, and collaborated with Israeli rock musician Dudu Tasa on Tasa's Hebrew-language single "What a Day".

In February 2010, Greenwood debuted a composition entitled "Doghouse" at the BBC’s Maida Vale Studios. In an interview following the performance, Greenwood and conductor Robert Ziegler revealed that the composition would be extrapolated into a score for the upcoming film Norwegian Wood directed by Anh Hung Tran, based on the best-selling novel of the same name by Haruki Murakami. Greenwood described the writing of the piece to the BBC, "I wrote this piece mostly in hotels and dressing rooms while touring with Radiohead. This was more practical than glamorous — lots of time sitting around indoors, lots of instruments about — and aside from picking up a few geographical working titles, I can’t think that it had any effect where, on tour, it was written." The premiere of the entire score took place on 19 March 2010.

Musical influences

Greenwood is greatly influenced by jazz and classical music; his favourites include Lee Morgan and Miles Davis. He is a major fan of the Mo' Wax label (onetime home of Blackalicious, DJ Krush, DJ Shadow and Dr. Octagon). Along with other Radiohead band members, he loves Krautrock band Can and Polish composer Krzysztof Penderecki. Greenwood has stated that his all time favourite piece of music is Messiaen's Turangalila Symphony, a gigantic piece for orchestra that features an Ondes Martenot, an instrument he discovered as a teenager. According to one of his entries on Radiohead's blog Dead Air Space, Greenwood has become a dub reggae aficionado, listening as of late 2005 to little else.

On the last date of Radiohead's summer 2008 tour with Grizzly Bear in support, Greenwood spoke of his love for them on stage, saying they are his "favourite band in the world".Greenwood has also stated that John McGeoch is one of his favourite guitarists. He said: "no guitarist inspired me more than John McGeoch".


Greenwood has inspired many with his guitar playing and style. He is also known for his aggressive guitar playing style. Guitarists such as Russell Lissack of the English rock band Bloc Party, Matt Bellamy of Muse and many others count Greenwood as an influence. Greenwood was also ranked number 59 in Rolling Stone magazine's "100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time"

Personal Life

In 1995 Jonny Greenwood married Israeli-born Sharona Katan, a visual artist whose work (credited as Shin Katan) appears on the covers of the Bodysong soundtrack as well as the There Will Be Blood soundtrack. Their first son, Tamir, was born in 2002 and has the 2003 Radiohead album Hail to the Thief dedicated to him. They also have a daughter named Omri, born in 2005, and a second son, named Zohar, who was born in February 2008. They live in Oxford, but also own a house in Israel, a mile outside of the city Naharia.


Electric Guitars

•    Fender Telecaster Plus, with a custom cut-off switch and special rewirings made by Greenwood and Plank (Radiohead's Guitar Technician). This guitar is equipped with Lace Sensor pickups.
•    Fender Telecaster Standard converted into a Plus which also has a custom cut-off switch and Lace Sensor pickups
•    1975 Fender Starcaster, with Fender Wide Range pickups, can be heard predominantly on Kid A and Amnesiac, it is used for most Kid A and Amnesiac he plays guitar on live, and a few songs from OK Computer.
•    A Gretsch G6119-1962HT Tennessee Rose HT.
•    Gibson Les Paul HD.6X-Pro Digital.
•    Gibson ES-335 (used on the acoustic Tour 2003)

Greenwood currently uses Dean Markley Signature Series 10-46 strings.

Acoustic Guitars

•    Martin D-35
•    Taylor Big Baby (played by both Jonny Greenwood and Thom Yorke in pictures from Dead Air Space)


•    Vox AC30, used for clean tones.
•    Fender Eighty-Five , solid state amp, used for distorted tones.

Early on in Greenwood's career, he used a Fender Twin Reverb for clean tones. He recently replaced the Deluxe 85 with an Eighty-Five.

Current Effects Pedals

Jonny does not order the pedals on his boards in order of his signal chain, which confuses many people. He has changed pedals around and added new ones over the years which adds to the confusion. Here is however, a very close order of his current pedals from guitar to amps.

•    Electro-Harmonix Small Stone
•    Demeter 'The Tremulator' (older version of the Demeter TRM-1 Tremulator)
•    DOD 440 Envelope Filter (modified to include a LED)
•    Digitech WH-1 Whammy
•    BOSS SD-1 Super Overdrive (Used as a clean boost. Can be heard on "Nude" and "15 Step".) (Also used as a warm overdrive.)
•    BOSS RE-20 Space Echo (replacement of his old BOSS RV-3 Digital Reverb/Delay)
•    Roland Space Echo RE-201 (activated via Vox egg footswitch)
•    Akai Headrush E1 or E2
•    BOSS LS-2 Line Selector (A/B mode)
•    Marshall ShredMaster (leads to Fender 85)
•    ProCo Rat Distortion (used during The Bends era)
•    BOSS FV-500H Volume Pedal (previously BOSS FV-300H)
•    BOSS TU-12H Chromatic Tuner (from 'tuner out' on FV-500H)
•    Line 6 DL4 Delay Modeler (Used for Everything in it's Right Place and added on 2007 Tour)
•    Roland FC-200 midi controller
•    Mutronics Mutator (used in the studio)
•    Voodoo Lab Pedal Power 2 (one on each board)
•    There are two more BOSS LS2's in his signal. One for bringing in the Kaoss pad into his setup and one for running his guitar through his Mac.


•    Analogue Systems RS8000 Integrator
•    Analogue Systems RS8500X
•    Analogue Systems French Connection
•    Ondes Martenot
•    Sequential Circuits Prophet-5
•    Korg Prophecy
•    Hammond XB2 Digital Organ
•    Moog Rogue
•    Mellotron M400
•    Rhodes Suitcase Piano Mark I 73
•    Fatar Keys CMS-161
•    Upright Piano
•    Celeste

Keyboard Effects

•    BOSS RV-3 Digital Reverb/Delay
•    Electro-Harmonix Small Stone Phase Shifter
•    BOSS FV300L/H
•    BOSS LS-2 Line Selector
•    Akai Headrush E1 or E2
•    Demeter Tremulator
•    Roland Space Echo RE-201
•    3 Laptops, manned by Jonny and band technician Russ Russell, running Kontakt 3, are used to trigger samples and keyboard sounds, played in realtime by Jonny and Colin. One laptop is placed by Jonny's other gear, the others being side of stage with Russ.

•    Accordion.
•    Banjo on at least one live performance of the b-side "I Am A Wicked Child"
•    Trumpet
•    Viola on "All I Need"
•    Recorder on the title track from "The Bends"
•    Harmonica on "I Am A Wicked Child" and on the Pavement songs “Platform Blues” and “Billie” from their final album Terror Twilight
•    Glockenspiel (on “No Surprises”, “Morning Bell/Amnesiac”, “Sit Down. Stand Up” and “All I Need”)
•    FM Radio on live performances of "Climbing Up the Walls" and "The National Anthem"
•    Tom drums on live performances of "There There", where Greenwood, guitarist/percussionist Ed O'Brien, and drummer Phil Selway all play drums (though the part they play is put together on a synthesizer on the studio version). He also plays drums on "Down Is The New Up", one of the bonus tracks from "In Rainbows".
•    Laptop Computer running Max/MSP (Used to process his guitar sound.)
•    Korg Kaoss Pad (for sampling, such as Thom Yorke's voice in the song "Everything in Its Right Place")
•    Voodoo Labs Pedal Power units power all pedals.


Velvet Goldmine

Thom Yorke and Jonny Greenwood got together with Bernard Butler (Suede), Andy Mackay, and Paul Kimble to form the band, The Venus in Furs, named after the Velvet Underground song. They recorded five songs (Roxy Music, Brian Eno and Steve Harley covers) for the Todd Haynes film Velvet Goldmine, which was produced by Michael Stipe. The tracks are:

•    "2HB" (vocals: Thom Yorke)
•    "Ladytron" (vocals: Thom Yorke)
•    "Baby's on Fire"
•    "Bitter-Sweet" (vocals: Thom Yorke)
•    "Tumbling Down"


Greenwood played harmonica on Pavement's final LP, Terror Twilight (1999). He played on the songs "Platform Blues" and "Billie". The album was produced by long-time Radiohead producer Nigel Godrich.

Bryan Ferry

Jonny appears on the track 'Hiroshima' from the Frantic album.

Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire

Greenwood played lead guitar in The Weird Sisters along with fellow Radiohead member Phil Selway, former Pulp members Jarvis Cocker and Steve Mackey, electronica artist Jason Buckle and Add N to (X) member Steve Claydon. They performed three tracks, composed by Cocker:

•    "Do the Hippogriff"
•    "This Is the Night"
•    "Magic Works"


•    2003 - Bodysong
•    2007 - There Will Be Blood
•    2010 - Norwegian Wood
•    2011 - We Need To Talk About Kevin

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